Fact sheetDiet specifications


General diet - maternity

This document is part of the ACI Diet Specifications for Adult Inpatients. It is not to be used for patient education.

Aim

To provide a nutritionally adequate diet for pregnant women.

Characteristics

All foods need to comply with NSW Food Authority Food Safety During Pregnancy Guidelines. Fish offered must comply with Food Standards Australia New Zealand guidelines on mercury in pregnancy (e.g. 2–3 serves per week of fish and seafood if not listed to limit on a weekly or fortnightly basis). Food service provision measures are aligned with the NSW Food Authority Guidelines for Food Service to Vulnerable Persons.

Indications

  • Pregnant adolescents and women

Nutritional adequacy

Nutrient with higher daily requirementsPregnant adolescentsPregnant women
Energy (kJ)+1400-1900* +1400-1900*
Folate (μg)+200+200
Vitamin C (mg)+15 +15
Calcium (mg) 0 0
Iron (mg)+12# +12#
Iodine (μg)150~ 150~

* Based on the range for second-third trimester of a single pregnancy and may vary according to initial mother’s weight status and presence of multiple foetuses.
# Provided via food and a pregnancy multivitamin and/or prescribed supplement.
~ The National Health and Medical Research Council recommends that all women who are pregnant take an iodine supplement of 150 micrograms (μg) each day. This amount of iodine may be met with a multivitamin supplement.

Precautions

In addition to the full menu, two extra dairy serves should be offered per day. All salads and sandwiches must be served within 48 hours of preparation and contain allowed ingredients. Food safety practices must ensure that clean, dry utensils are always used so that bulk packs are not contaminated. Women should seek additional advice from a medical officer prior to taking any supplements. Extra serves and snacks may be needed to meet appetite and increased needs of pregnant adolescents.

Paediatrics

Suitable for use in adolescents (12–18 years) when combined with an age-appropriate diet.

Specific menu planning guidelines

Allowed Not allowed
Hot main dishes

All well-cooked meat, poultry, seafood and vegetarian dishes

Serve eggs that are cooked until the white is firm and yolk begins to thicken

Low-mercury fish (e.g. mackerel, silver warehou, Atlantic salmon, canned salmon and tuna, sardines, snapper, trevally, whiting, bream, mullet and garfish)

Dishes with added soft or semi-soft cheese (e.g. ricotta, brie, fetta, camembert, bocconcini and blue) if cooked

Raw or undercooked meat, poultry or seafood

Raw tofu, smoked fish, tempeh

Raw or soft-boiled eggs

Cooked and peeled prawns served cold

Shark (flake), broadbill, marlin, swordfish, orange roughy (sea perch) and catfish

Sauces, gravies All cooked All others
Starchy vegetables / pasta / rice All cooked All others
Vegetables

All cooked and canned vegetables

Sanitised vegetables including leafy green vegetables (e.g. lettuce, baby spinach, parsley and rocket)

Raw sprouts (e.g. alfalfa, broccoli, onion, sunflower, clover, radish, snow pea, mung and soybean)

Raw vegetables that cannot be sanitised (e.g. mushrooms)

Soups Soup served hot Soup served cold
Sandwiches

Sandwiches must be made on site, contain allowed ingredients and be used within 48 hours

Pasteurised meats and poultry (cooked in bags) and sliced acceptably with correct food hygiene practices#

Hard-boiled eggs, canned fish

Commercially manufactured and packaged hard cheeses (e.g. cheddar)

Sanitised vegetables including leafy green vegetables (e.g. lettuce, baby spinach, parsley and rocket)

Unpasteurised processed meats and poultry (e.g. some hams and chicken roll)

Smoked meat and fish

All other patés and meat spreads (e.g. those requiring refrigeration)

Salads, dressings

Vegetables and fruit that are canned

Sanitised vegetables including leafy green vegetables (e.g. lettuce, baby spinach, parsley and rocket)

Salads must be made on site, contain allowed ingredients and be used within 48 hours

Canned salads (e.g. mixed beans and potato salad)

Canned, peeled prawns may be used within 48 hours of opening package

Portion packs of commercially manufactured mayonnaise, dressings and condiments

Raw sprouts (e.g. alfalfa, broccoli, onion, sunflower, clover, radish, snow pea, mung and soybean)

Raw vegetables that cannot be sanitised (e.g. mushrooms)

Salad dressings made with blue cheese or raw eggs

Unpasteurised processed meats and poultry (e.g. some hams and chicken roll)

Compound salads (e.g. potato salad and coleslaw)

Cooked and peeled prawns served cold

Smoked meat and fish

Breads, cereals

All breads, pre-packaged, processed and ready-to-eat including raisin or fruit bread

Cooked breakfast cereals (e.g. porridge and semolina)

Plain commercially manufactured breakfast cereals (e.g. corn flakes, wheat biscuits, puffed rice, oats and muesli)

-
Spreads

Commercially manufactured brands of jam, nut butters and pastes, yeast spreads, marmalade, chocolate hazelnut spread and mayonnaise

Spreads in portion control packs or bulk containers which have been handled in a way to prevent contamination

Commercially manufactured spreads including hummus, cottage cheese, cream cheese and cheese spread may be used within 48 hours of opening package

Canned pâté and meat spreads may be used within 48 hours of opening package

Canned, peeled prawns may be used within 48 hours of opening package

Canned, smoked meat and fish (e.g. pilchards) may be used within 48 hours of opening package

Pasteurised honey (including portion control packs) and honey as an ingredient in a cooked meal

Other spreads including refrigerated pâté, meat spreads or tahini
Hot breakfast choices All cooked breakfast items -
Fruit

Sanitised whole fresh fruit (e.g. apples, oranges, mandarins, pears, kiwi fruit, stone fruit, grapes, etc.)

Bananas served whole (unpeeled and uncut)

All canned or stewed fruit

Fruit from bulk packs must be used within 48 hours of decanting

Dried fruit

Fruit that is cut from whole fruit that cannot be sanitised (e.g. rockmelon)

Fruits that cannot be sanitised (e.g. rockmelon)

Fresh fruit with a rough texture (e.g. raspberries, strawberries and rockmelon)

Yoghurt

Commercially manufactured yoghurts, including those with fruit and probiotic

Yoghurt from bulk packs must be used within 48 hours after decanting

All other yoghurts, including home made
Desserts

Desserts and puddings served hot (e.g. sticky date pudding and apple crumble)

Heat-treated portion-control cold desserts (e.g. custard and creamy rice)

Shelf-stable commercially manufactured cakes, pastries and puddings

Pastries with cooked fillings (e.g. apple Danish)

Commercially manufactured ice creams using allowed ingredients

Desserts containing uncooked eggs (e.g. mousse)

Pastries filled with cream or custard after cooking (e.g. profiterole)

Soft-serve ice cream

Milk and cheese

All pasteurised milk and milk products including cream and sour cream

Commercially manufactured and packaged hard cheese (e.g. cheddar) including cheese slices

Processed cheeses, cottage cheese, cream cheese and cheese spread may be used within 48 hours of opening package

Soft and semi-soft cheese unless used as an ingredient in a cooked dish

Unpasteurised dairy products

Beverages Tea, coffee, water, fruit juice, vegetable juice, cordial, low-joule soft drinks, carbonated drinks, low-joule cordial, hot chocolate drinks

Commercially manufactured fermented drinks (e.g. kombucha)

Alcohol (e.g. wine, beer and sprits)

Commercially manufactured energy drink

Biscuits All -
Miscellaneous

Nutritional supplements

Salt, pepper, herbs and spices

Sugar and artificial sweeteners*

Baked, shelf-stable muesli bars

Raw nuts and coconut

Raw oysters

Sushi

# As per NSW Food Authority Guidelines for Food Service to Vulnerable Persons
* Artificial sweeteners should be consumed in moderation

References

  1. Dietitians Association of Australia (DAA). Nutrition manual. 9th ed. Canberra: DAA; 2014.
  2. DAA. Nutrition for pregnancy [Internet]. Canberra: DAA; 2018 [cited 9 July 2018].
  3. DAA. Why do pregnant and breastfeeding women need more iodine? DAA; 2018 [cited 9 July 2018].
  4. Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ). Mercury in fish [Internet]. Majura Park: FSANZ; 2011 [cited 9 July 2018].
  5. National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). Nutrient reference values for Australia and New Zealand. Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing; 2006.
  6. NHMRC. Iodine supplementation for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women [Internet]. Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing; 2010 [cited 9 July 2018].
  7. NHMRC. Australian Guidelines to Reduce Health Risks from Drinking Alcohol [Internet]. Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing; 2009 [cited 9 July 2018].
  8. NSW Food Authority. Food safety during pregnancy [Internet]. Sydney: NSW Food Authority; 2015 [cited 9 July 2018].
  9. NSW Food Authority. Guidelines for food service to vulnerable persons [Internet]. Sydney: NSW Food Authority; 2015 [cited 2 June 2017].
  10. Shaw V and Lawson M. Clinical Paediatric Dietetics. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwall Publishing; 2007
  11. Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ). Pregnancy and healthy eating [Internet]. Majura Park: FSANZ; 2011 [cited 16 February 2022]

Change log

February 2022

Section updatedChange
Specific menu planning guidelines - Spreads In Allowed, delete tahini
In Not allowed, added after meat spreads tahini
References Added Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ). Pregnancy and healthy eating [Internet]. Majura Park: FSANZ; 2011 [cited 16 February 2022]
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