Back to top


What is it?

Seizures can be defined as episodic neurologic dysfunction caused by abnormal neuronal activity and have behavioural, sensory, motor, and autonomic clinical manifestations.There are various types of seizures underscoring the broad range of clinical presentations.


First, is this a seizure or not?

  • Reliable witness

  • Movements described

  • Incontinence

  • Post ictal confusion.

For tonic clonic seizures, injury patterns:

  • Tongue biting

  • Knee abrasions

  • Head injuries.

Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as any seizure type (simple to complex) with continuous seizure activity or a series of seizures without a return to full consciousness, usually for >5-10 minutes.

Identifying and understanding the various type of seizures often guides clinical management. Management of seizures in the ED has three components:

  1. Terminating the seizure

  2. Managing the post ictal state and associated sequellae, and

  3. Preventing further seizures.

For more information on types, effects, investigations, treatment and medication for seizures click on the links below.

Further References and Resources

© Agency for Clinical Innovation 2023