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Indications for pleural drains
- Pneumothorax: tension pneumothorax (following emergency needle decompression), persistent or recurrent pneumothorax, large spontaneous pneumothorax, pneumothorax in any ventilated patient.
- Pleural effusion: malignant, para-pneumonic or other non-malignant causes e.g. liver failure.
- Traumatic haemothorax or pneumothorax.
- Empyema or pyothorax (the approach to management of a pleural drain for treatment of empyema may vary).
- Post-operative: thoracic, cardiac, oesophageal or spinal surgery.