Fact sheetDiet specifications

Published on 1 Oct 2015


Mineral / electrolyte diet - potassium - restricted - 70mmol

This document is part of the ACI Diet Specifications for Adult Inpatients. It is not to be used for patient education.

Aim

To limit total potassium intake to 70mmol (2730mg) per day.

Characteristics

Limits foods high in potassium (milk, yoghurt, legumes, nuts, and some fruits and vegetables).

Indications

  • hyperkalemia
  • patients on haemodialysis
  • end-stage renal disease

Nutritional adequacy

This diet may not be nutritionally adequate. Nutrients that may require additional supplementation include fibre, folate, magnesium, calcium and zinc.

Precautions

Suggested meal structure (inclusive of all foods and fluids served at each meal)

  • Breakfast: <15mmol (585mg)
  • Morning tea: <5mmol (195mg)
  • Lunch: <20mmol (780mg)
  • Afternoon tea: <5mmol (195mg)
  • Dinner: <20mmol (780mg)
  • Supper: <5mmol (195mg)

In patients requiring an increased energy intake, encourage use of boiled lollies, soft drinks, cordial, jam, honey and margarine.

Paediatrics

Not suitable for use in paediatrics.

Specific menu planning guidelines

Allowed Not allowed
Hot main dishes

<10mmol (390mg) potassium per serve

-
Sauces, gravies All (tomato sauce <20ml portion control per day) -
Starchy vegetables / pasta / rice

<7mmol (273mg) potassium per serve

White rice and pasta

Note: To reduce potassium content of vegetables, boil in large volume of water, rather than steaming or roasting serve

≥7mmol (273mg) potassium per serve, e.g. baked potato with skin and potato chips

Wholemeal, wholegrain or brown rice or pasta

Vegetables

<5mmol (195mg) potassium per serve

Limit to four serves per day

Note: To reduce potassium content of vegetables, boil in large volume of water, rather than steaming or roasting

≥5mmol (195mg) potassium per serve

Mixed legumes, e.g. three-bean mix served as a stand-alone vegetable

Soups Soups with <2.5mmol (100mg) potassium per serve e.g. plain chicken or meat soups with or without noodles or rice

Soups with >2.5mmol (100mg) potassium per serve e.g. tomato, vegetable, pea and ham, minestrone

Sandwiches All -
Salads, dressings

<15mmol (585mg) potassium for full salad

<5mmol (195mg) potassium for side salad

>15mmol (585mg) potassium for full salad

>5mmol (195mg) potassium for side salad

Breads, cereals

All bread and muffins

Breakfast cereals with <8mmol (312mg) potassium per serve (e.g. oats, Weet-Bix™, Corn Flakes®, Rice Bubbles®)

Some high bran breakfast cereals or those with added fruit if >8mmol (312mg) per serve

Spreads Butter, margarine, jam, honey Peanut butter, Vegemite™
Hot breakfast choices All others Baked beans, mushrooms
Fruit

Limit to 2 serves per day with <5mmol (195mg) potassium per serve

Some fresh fruits (e.g. watermelon, mandarin) and all canned fruits (drained if in natural juice)

≥5mmol (195mg) potassium per serve (e.g. apricots, bananas)

Dried fruits

Yoghurt 100g plain or vanilla yoghurt per day All other yoghurts       
Desserts

<5mmol (195mg) potassium per serve (e.g. plain cake, pavlova, ice-cream, jelly, apple sponge, creamy rice)

At least one choice with <2.5mmol (97mg) potassium per serve must be offered per day

≥5mmol (195mg) potassium per serve (e.g. fruit cake)

Milk and cheese

150ml milk per day for cereal, tea, coffee or as a beverage (e.g. cow, goat or dairy alternatives)

Cheese

Other milk drinks

Beverages

Tea, cordial, soft drinks

150ml milk per day for cereal, tea, coffee or as a beverage (e.g. cow, goat or dairy alternatives)

Limit coffee to three cups per day

Other milk drinks

Fruit and vegetable juices

Milo®, cocoa

Biscuits

Plain crackers and biscuits (e.g. Sao™, Milk Arrowroot™, Morning Coffee™)

>1.5mmol (58mg) per serve of two biscuits (e.g. some chocolate, wholemeal or fruit biscuits)

Miscellaneous

Herbs, spices, vinegar

Chutney and pickles (small amounts only)

Salt, pepper, sugar, cream

Nuts

Chocolate, coconut

Salt reduced products with added potassium.

Salt replacements

References

  1. Dietitians Association of Australia. Nutrition manual. 9th ed. Canberra: DAA; 2014.
  2. American Dietetic Association. Nutrition care manual. Chicago: ADA; 2009. [accessed 17 March 2010].
  3. National Kidney Foundation. Potassium and your CKD diet. [accessed 13 Aug 2015];
  4. Voss D. Potassium in pre-dialysis patients. Nephrology 2005;10 Suppl 5:S188-190.
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