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Living Evidence - COVID-19 vaccines

Living evidence tables provide high level summaries of key studies and evidence on a particular topic, and links to sources. They are reviewed regularly and updated as new evidence and information is published.

There are four main types of vaccines and over 200 candidate vaccines in development. This table includes information on vaccines that have published phase 3 trial data in the peer reviewed literature. It focuses on information related to efficacy, safety and rollout.

Daily checks are conducted for new content and any updates that occur during the week are highlighted. All highlights are removed each Monday.

 Comirnaty (Pfizer/BioNTech) BNT162b2Vaxzevria (Oxford/AstraZeneca) AZD1222Spikevax (Moderna) mRNA-1273 Sputnik V Gam-COVID-Vac Johnson & Johnson Ad26.COV2.SNovavax NVX-CoV2373 Sinopharm BIBPSinovac (CoronaVac)

Phase 3 trial publication

The New England Journal of Medicine (1)

The New England Journal of Medicine (2)

The Lancet (3)

The Lancet (4)

The New England Journal of Medicine

The Lancet

The New England Journal of Medicine

The New England Journal of MedicineJAMA

The Lancet (5)

SSRN Preprint (6)

Vaccine type

mRNA (nucleic acid)

Viral vector

mRNA (nucleic acid)

Viral vector

Viral vector

Protein subunit

Inactivated (two strains WIV04 and HB02)

Inactivated (CZ02 strain)
Dosing schedule from phase 3 trial

Two 30µg doses;

Dose interval 21 days

Two doses (5x1010viral particles);

Dose interval 28 days

Two 100µg doses;

Dose interval 28 days

Two doses (1011 viral particles);

Dose interval 21 days

One dose (5x1010 viral particles)

Two 5µg doses;

Dose interval 21 days

WIV04:
Two 5µg doses;
Dose interval 21 days

HB02:
Two 4µg doses;
Dose interval 21 days

Two 3µg doses;

Dose interval 14 days

Efficacy - various endpoints

        

SARS-CoV-2 infection

14 to 20 days after Dose 1: 46%*
≥7 days after Dose 2: 92%* (2)

55.7%* (3)

54.1%* (4)

89.6%*

Not yet available

Not yet available

Not yet available Not yet available   Not yet available

Asymptomatic infection

14 to 20 days after Dose 1: 29% (estimated)*

≥7 days after Dose 2: 90% (estimated)* (2)

LD/SD (initial half dose) 58.9% /SD/SD (full dose) recipients 3.8%
Total combined 27.3%*ꝉ (3)

COV002 UK study participants only: LD/SD 49.3%* / SD/SD 2.0%*
Total combined 22.2%* (4)

Not yet available

Not yet available

At day 71 days: 65.5%* Not yet available

WIV04:
14 days after Dose 2: 64%

HB02:
14 days after Dose 2: 73.5%

Not yet available

Severe COVID-19

88.9% after Dose 1* (1)

14 to 20 days after Dose 1: 62%*
≥7 days after Dose 2: 92%* (2)

For hospitalisation:
14 to 20 days after Dose 1: 74%*
≥7 days after Dose 2: 87%* (2)

100%*ⱶ (3)

100% (US Phase 3 trial; 2 Doses administered 4 weeks apart)^

100%*

100%*

≥14 days after dose: 76.7%

≥28 days after dose: 85.4%

For hospitalisation:
≥14 days after dose: 93.1%*
≥28 days after dose: 100%*

100%*ⱶ (No hospitalizations or cases of severe infection were reported among the 10 cases in the vaccine group)

100%*

100%* for the prevention of COVID-19 related hospitalisation.

Mortality

14 to 20 days after Dose 1: 72% (estimated)* (2)

Not yet available

Not yet available

Not yet available

Not yet available

Not yet available

Not yet available

Not yet available

Transmissionⱡ

Not yet available. 

Overall reduction in any PCR+ was 54.1% indicating the potential for a reduction of transmission with a regimen of two SDs.*^ (4)

Not yet available

Not yet available

Not yet available

Not yet available

Not yet available

Not yet available
Effectiveness ('real world' data)

Symptomatic/infection

The CDC reports low rate of new infections vaccinated people (approx. 5800 of 77 million).^

Multiple studies show 85% to 97% effectiveness 7 days after Dose 2 (general population and healthcare workers).

0.35% of fully vaccinated people had breakthrough infections.

4-month cumulative incidence following full vaccination is 0.005%.

Asymptomatic

Multiple studies show 90% to 92% effectiveness 7 days after Dose 2.

Hospitalisation

Multiple studies show 71% to 97% effectiveness.^

Mortality

Multiple studies show 85% to 98.7% effectiveness.^ mRNA vaccines 64.2% effective for partially vaccinated individuals.^

Transmission

Effectiveness against transmission has been shown to be up to 88.5%.

Risk of household transmission 49% lower if index cases vaccinated ≥21 days prior to testing positive (compared to no vaccination).^

Symptomatic/infection

Multiple studies show reduced infections, 65% to 73% after dose 1 and from 93% reduction up to no symptomatic infection in healthcare workers after dose 2.

In general population, 96.1% antibody responses after dose 1 and 98.8% after dose 2 .^

Hospitalisation

Multiple studies show effectiveness ranging from 73% to 95%.*^

Transmission

Vaccination of health care workers was associated with a substantial reduction of cases in household contacts.^

Risk of household transmission 38% lower if index cases vaccinated ≥21 days prior to testing positive (compared to no vaccination).^

Symptomatic/infection

The CDC reports low rate of new infections vaccinated people (approx.. 5800 of 77 million).^

In general population, efficacy range from 93.6% to 94.1% after 2 doses.^

In healthcare workers, the incidence of infection was 0.7% after 1 dose and 0% after 2 doses, and vaccine effectiveness was 38.2% at 14d after 1 dose and 100% after 2 doses.

Asymptomatic

Significantly reduced risk in vaccinated adults.*

Hospitalisation

Significantly lower 14-day hospital admission rates than unvaccinated individuals.^ mRNA vaccines are 92% to 96% effective at preventing hospitalisation; 77% for partially vaccinated individuals.^

Effectiveness against any severe, critical or fatal COVID-19 disease due to any SARS-CoV-2 infection was 95.7% after the second dose.

Mortality

mRNA vaccines 98.7% effective at preventing deaths; 64.2% effective for partially vaccinated individuals.^

Of a seronegative cohort, 42% did not develop a measurable IgG immune response against RBD after the first vaccine dose but 100% had a strong IgG response after two vaccine doses.

Symptomatic/Infection

76.7% effectiveness against infection >14 days after vaccination*^

Hospitalisation

Relative risk of 14-Day Hospital admission rate: 0.68*^

Relative risk of 14-Day ICU admission rate: 0*^

Mortality

Relative risk of 14-Day Mortality rate: 0 (n=1)*^

Not yet available

Hospitalisation

78.5% effectiveness against hospitalisation

Symptomatic/infection

14 to 28 days after dose 1: 15.5%

65.9% effective against infection.

Hospitalisation

Ranges from 87.5% to 100% prevention of hospitalisation.

90.3% for the prevention of ICU admission.

Mortality

86.3% effective at preventing deaths.

Safety

Initial assessment determined acceptable safety profile.

Reports of anaphylaxis (4.7 cases per 1 million vaccinations).*^

Extremely rare cases of immune thrombocytopenia (<1 case per million) in USA and 33 per 1 million in Europe. Rare reports of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST)^ and cerebral venous thrombosis. Risk of cerebral blood clots from COVID-19 is 10 times that from vaccination. Rare reports of myocarditis.^ The excess risk of myocarditis is 1 to 5 events per 100,000 persons.

Post-vaccination cardiac adverse events rates following dose two is 162.2 and 94.0/million for boys aged 12-15 and 16-17, respectively.

Standardised incidence ratios for VTE have been reported to be at 1.29 and 0.90 after first- and second-doses.^

Regulatory advice

TGA and CDC continue to monitor events. TGA safety data consistent with known side effects.

In Australia to 5 September 2021, TGA have received 370 reports of suspected myocarditis and/or pericarditis, out of 10.7 million doses administered. ^

Initial assessment determined acceptable safety profile.

Standardised incidence ratios for VTE has been reported to be at 1.15 after first dose.^

Regulatory advice

TGA and CDC continue to monitor events. TGA safety data consistent with known side effects.

TGA has found no evidence of increased risk by anaphylaxis. To 5 September 2021, the TGA has received 110 reports of suspected Guillan-Barre Syndrome and 66 reports of suspected Immune thrombocytopenia in people who have received the vaccine.^

In Australia, the total number of cases of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) is 132 from 10.2 million doses of vaccine administered to date.

Nine deaths (8 were TTS cases and 1 was a case of immune thrombocytopenia) have been reported out of 10.2 million doses of vaccine.

Initial assessment determined acceptable safety profile.

Reports of anaphylaxis (2.5 cases per 1 million vaccinations).*^

Extremely rare cases of immune thrombocytopenia (<1 case per million).^ Rare reports of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST); no significant link with vaccine.^ Risk of cerebral blood clots from COVID-19 is 10 times that from vaccination.^

Regulatory advice

Case reports of adverse events published throughout literature. CDC continue to monitor events. TGA safety data consistent with known side effects.

Initial assessment determined acceptable safety profile.

Initial assessment determined acceptable safety profile.

Six possible cases of CVST. EMA investigation reports that unusual blood clots are a “very rare side effect” of the vaccine and confirms positive overall benefit-risk. CDC concludes that benefits of resuming vaccination outweighs risks.^ WHO concludes the causal relationship of TTS is considered plausible, but the risk is very low (<1 in 100 000 people vaccinated).^

Regulatory advice

Case reports of adverse events published throughout literature. CDC continue to monitor events. TGA safety data consistent with known side effects.

Initial assessment determined acceptable safety profile.

Initial assessment determined acceptable safety profile.

Initial assessment determined acceptable safety profile.

Specific populations

Children

Aged 12-15: 100% efficacy and robust antibody responses

Aged 6months -11 years: trial underway^

Immunocompromised people

Multiple studies of effectiveness with few serious adverse events.^*

Compared to healthy controls, multiple studies show weaker antibody and humoral response and higher rate of infection after single and double doses.*

Pregnant and lactating women

Multiple studies suggest similar immune response in vaccinated pregnant and lactating women compared to vaccinated non-pregnant women, with effectiveness up to 97%.

No obvious safety signals in pregnancy or neonatal outcomes, especially in women vaccinated during third trimester* No significant differences in side effects when receiving vaccine during any trimester.

No detectable levels of vaccine mRNA in breastmilk.* However, breast milk contained specific anti–SARS-CoV-2 IgG(S1) antibodies.

Infants who consumed post-vaccination human milk had no reported adverse effects.

Older adults

Vaccination elicited relatively lower antibody levels in older adults vs younger adults.

Aged >70: 61% effective against symptomatic infection after 28-34 days; 43% effective for reducing hospital admission and 51% at preventing deaths after dose 1. Delayed and reduced antibody response compared to healthy HCWs.

80-91% reduction in infection, hospitalisations and mortality among nursing home residents for up to five months.

With full vaccination, pre-Delta period adjusted VE was 74.2%. Delta period adjusted VE is 52.4%.

Aged >80: 71.4% effective at reducing hospitalisation.

Children

Aged 6-17: trial underway^

Immunocompromised people

Weaker antibody response compared to non-immunocompromised individuals, especially after single dose.*

Older adults

Effectiveness of the two-dose schedule was 77% against Covid-19 (Gamma variant), 87% against hospitalization, and 93% against death.

Aged >70: 60%-73% effective against symptomatic infection after 28 days; 37% effective for reducing hospital admission after dose 1.

Aged >80: About 80% effective at preventing hospitalisation after dose 1. 91.2% efficacy against death.^

Aged care residents

Multiple studies showed single dose led to protection against asymptomatic infection for up to 7 weeks.^

Children

Aged 6months to 12 years: trial underway^

Adolescents

No serious adverse events and no cases of infection with an onset of 14 days after the second injection.

Immunocompromised people

Weaker antibody response compared to healthy controls^

Multiple studies show increased antibody titers in solid transplant patients after 3rd dose of either Pfizer/Moderna/Janssen.*

Pregnant and lactating women

Similar immune response in vaccinated pregnant and lactating women compared to vaccinated non-pregnant women.

No obvious safety signals in pregnancy or neonatal outcomes, especially in women vaccinated during third trimester*

Maternal antibody production 5 days after dose 1, transplacental transfer of immunity to neonate 16 days after dose 1.*

Older adults

Aged ≥65: 86.4%-100% effective against infection after 2 doses.^

With full vaccination, pre-Delta period adjusted VE was 74.7%. Delta period adjusted VE is 50.6%.

Aged care residents

There is no difference in post-boost antibody levels in older adults vs younger adults.

Lower incidence of infections, symptomatic illness, hospitalisations, and death following vaccination* Report of few breakthrough infections after dose 1 in full vaccinated individuals, most with asymptomatic illness.*

Not yet available

Immunocompromised people

Breakthrough infection ranges from 0.8%-1.4% among solid transplant recipients.

People with rheumatic and muscular disease had a lower rate of seroconversion. One in five people did not mount a detectable antibody response.

Older adults

Aged>=65: 76.5% effective against moderate to severe COVID-19 disease.

Older adults

Aged ≥ 65 years: 88.9%

Not yet available

Immunocompromised people

Demonstrates a good safety profile with no serious/moderate AEs, and is immunogenic in patients with autoimmune rheumatic disease, but at lower levels when compared to healthy individuals.

Older adults

Multiple studies show:
66.6% against infection
85.3% against hospitalisation
89.2% against ICU and 67.3% to
86.5% against COVID related death

Single dose protection*

52.4%

Reduction in positive cases range from 30%, to 84%

73%*^

Reduction in positive cases range from 49% to 86.2%.

93.4% of previously naïve individuals seroconverted after a single dose.

95.2%*

Single dose may be insufficient to neutralise B.1.351 variant in previously uninfected individuals.^

Reduction in positive cases ranging from 38.2% to 85.7%.

73·6% from 15 to 21 days after first dose*, up to 94% of naïve participants developing spike-specific IgG antibodies.

See efficacy above (dosing schedule is single dose)

Efficacy starting 14 days after the first dose was 83.4%

WIV04:
50.3% after dose 1 against symptomatic COVID-19

HB02:
65.5% after dose 1 against symptomatic COVID-19

Efficacy between days 14 and 27 after the first dose was 46.4%.

Low antibody concentrations after the first dose, rising to moderate concentrations after the second dose.*

Dosing schedule

Gaps between doses should not exceed 42 days*^

Higher two-dose efficacy was observed with >6 week intervals, including in ≥80 year-olds. Increase in neutralizing antibody activity was observed with  9 to 12 weeks interval.

A third dose provided additional protection against detected infection and severe disease, including in immunocompromised people. In this population, a longer time interval between the second and the third dose gave a better response to the third dose.

Heterologous vaccination

Pfizer and AstraZeneca at 28-day intervals: 41% mild systemic reactogenicity as opposed to 21% with two Pfizer doses.

Multiple studies show Pfizer given as a second dose in individuals already given AstraZeneca is safe, induced a robust immune response, and an acceptable reactogenicity profile, including at a 10–12-week interval. The antibody response is comparable to homologous vaccination.

Robust inhibition of variants including the delta variant following heterologous boosting.

53.4% at <6-week interval between doses and 65.4% at ≥6-week interval (3)

81.3% at 12+ weeks (4)

With an 8 to 12 week interval between doses, antibody responses are 1.4 times higher.

Extending the interval between the first and second dose to 45 weeks resulted in higher antibody titres.

A third dose induces antibodies to a level that correlates with high efficacy.

Heterologous vaccination

Multiple studies show there is a higher immunogenicity of an AstraZeneca/Pfizer heterologous schedule compared with an AstraZeneca-only schedule. A 10–12-week interval is well tolerated and improves immunogenicity.

Reduction in the risk of infection 14 days after the second dose of AstraZeneca plus an mRNA vaccine, with effectiveness at 88%.

Robust inhibition of variants including the delta variant following heterologous boosting.

Heterologous vaccination

Moderna can efficiently stimulate specific B-cell memory that has been generated by a prime dose of AstraZeneca vaccine 9 to 12 weeks earlier and may provide better protection against the B.1.351 variant than a AstraZeneca boost.

Not yet available

Not applicable Not yet available Seroconversion 14 days after Dose 2 is 99.3%

Heterologous vaccination

Heterologous prime-boost regimen with Convidecia after the priming with CoronaVac was safe and significantly immunogenic than a homogeneous boost with CoronaVac.

Heterologous prime-boost with CoronaVac-AstraZeneca yielded comparable antibody levels to two doses of AstraZeneca.

Jurisdictional policy on dosing schedule

UK delaying second dose until 12 weeks after first dose*^ Priority groups can have second dose 8 weeks after second dose.

Canada’s NACI recommends that a mRNA vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna) is preferred as the second dose for individuals who received a first dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine.

Heterologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19–BNT162b2 immunisation with 10–12-week interval, recommended in Germany.

UK has recommended that people with severely weakened immune systems should have a third dose.

Australia’s ATAGI recommend an interval between 4 and 8 weeks in outbreak situations.

Planned roll-out in the UK is administration of two doses, 8-12 weeks apart*^ (4)

Canada’s NACI recommends that an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine is now preferred as the second dose for individuals who received a first dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine.^

Canada’s NACI recommends that a mRNA vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna) is preferred to start a vaccine series and as the second dose for individuals who received a first dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine.^

UK has recommended that people with severely weakened immune systems should have a third dose.

Not yet available

Not applicable Not yet available Not yet available Not yet available

Prior COVID-19 infection

Most studies report prior infection enhances neutralising antibody response, including following a single dose and at 2-3 weeks after second dose. One study found no difference between previously infected and not infected individuals who were vaccinated.

Multiple studies indicate a greater humoral response than uninfected individuals after a second dose.

Incidence rates of infection among vaccinated persons with prior infection was estimated at 1.66 per 10,000 person-weeks.

Vaccinated infection-naïve people had a 5.96-fold increased risk for breakthrough infection, a 7.13-fold increased risk for symptomatic disease and were at a greater risk for hospitalizations compared to those that were previously infected.

Elderly populations can mount a strong antibody response upon receiving a single dose 15 months after recovery from COVID-19.

There is limited data on efficacy and effectiveness of vaccination to prevent infection specific to those with prior infection, and no information on the effectiveness of the vaccine to prevent re-infection.

Incidence rates of infection among vaccinated persons, with and without prior infection, were estimated at 1.55 and 1.83 per 10,000 person-weeks.

All seropositive individuals developed a strong IgG antibody response against RBD after the first vaccine dose, with antibody levels approximately 40% higher than the seronegative individuals who had received two doses.

Not yet available

Not yet available Not yet available Participants who had COVID-19 before vaccination presented with a stable antibody level.  

Immunological memory was higher in recovered individuals than in naïve persons at 12 months.

Longevity of protection

Efficacy was 91% through up to 6 months of follow-up after two doses.

Emerging evidence of a decline in antibody titres 3-6 months post Pfizer vaccination.^

Neutralizing activity was observed after six months, despite a progressive decline over time.

Protection against infection appears to wane rapidly however protection against hospitalisation and death persists at least 6 months following the second dose.^

87% of immunocompromised adults had adequate antibody titres 1.5 months after the second dose, but only 41% maintained adequate antibody titres three months after vaccination.

Effectiveness against symptomatic disease after second dose is 70% by 20+ weeks against the Delta variant. Protection against hospitalisation is 93% effectiveness by 20+ weeks. Effectiveness against deaths was 91% by 20+ weeks for all ages.

Generally, adenoviruses are highly immunogenic, driving long-lasting immune responses*^

Virus specific antibodies were maintained at ≥16 weeks after receiving a single dose.

Effectiveness against symptomatic disease after second dose is 47% by 20+ weeks against the Delta variant. Protection against hospitalisation is 77% effectiveness by 20+ weeks. Effectiveness against deaths was 79% by 20+ weeks for all ages.

Likely to offer protection for a “couple of years”, as antibody decay is very slow.*^

In one study antibodies persisted through 6 months after the second dose. While another found at 6 months, a sharper decline in antibody levels is observed in naïve vaccinees compared to previously infected people.

Effectiveness against symptomatic disease after second dose is 90-96% at 10-14 weeks.

Generally, adenoviruses are highly immunogenic, driving long-lasting immune responses*^

Generally, adenoviruses are highly immunogenic, driving long-lasting immune responses*^

Elicits durable humoral and cellular immune responses with minimal decreases for at least 8 months after immunization.

Not yet available Not yet available Antibody concentrations at the 1st and 3rd months after the vaccination with two doses were found to be decreased, but still detectable.  

Impact of new variants on vaccines

Alpha: Estimated effectiveness up to 94.5%.^

Beta: Estimated 5 to <10-fold reduction in neutralisation. Estimated effectiveness up to 100%.^

Gamma: Estimated 5 to <5-fold reduction in neutralisation. Estimated effectiveness up to 84%.^

Delta: Estimated 5 to <10-fold reduction in neutralisation.^ Estimated effectiveness up to 92%.^

Effectiveness after one dose was notably lower among persons with the delta variant than among those with the alpha variant.

Alpha: Estimated 5 to <10-fold reduction in neutralisation.^ Estimated effectiveness up to 74.6%

Beta: Estimated 5 to <10-fold reduction in neutralisation.^ As little as 10.4% protection against mild to moderate disease, up to 48% effective against symptomatic disease.^

Gamma: Estimated 2 to <5-fold reduction in neutralisation.^

Delta: Estimated 2 to <5-fold reduction in neutralisation.^ Estimated effectiveness up to 67.0%. Effectiveness after one dose was notably lower compared with the alpha variant.

Alpha: Estimated <2-fold reduction in neutralisation.^ Estimated effectiveness up to100%.

Beta: Estimated 5 to <10-fold reduction in neutralisation.^ Estimated effectiveness up to 96.4%.

Gamma: Estimated 2 to <5-fold reduction in neutralisation.^ Estimated effectiveness up to 77%.^

Delta: Estimated 2 to <5-fold reduction in neutralisation.^ Estimated effectiveness up to 72%.^

Beta: Estimated 5 to <10-fold reduction in neutralisation*^

Alpha: Estimated 2 to <5-fold reduction in neutralisation.^

Beta: Estimated ≥10-fold reduction in neutralisation.^ Estimated effectiveness up to 85%.

Gamma: Estimated 2 to <5-fold reduction in neutralisation.^

Delta: Estimated <2-fold reduction in neutralisation.^

Alpha: Estimated <2-fold reduction in neutralisation.^ Estimated effectiveness up to 89.7%.^

Beta: Estimated ≥10-fold reduction in neutralisation.^ Estimated effectiveness up to 81.7% for severe to critical disease.^

Not yet available

Alpha: Significant reduction in neutralising antibody capacity compared to wild type*^

Beta: Significant reduction in neutralising antibody capacity compared to wild type*^

Gamma: Estimated <2-fold reduction in neutralisation and a reduction in vaccine effectiveness*^

Storage

-80°C and -60°C

-20±5°C for up to 2 weeks within the shelf life when stored at -90 to -60°C 2°C to 8°C for unopened thawed vials up to 31 days.^

2°C to 8°C

-25°C and -15°C

-18°C (liquid, used in trial) and 2–8°C (freeze dried, approved by Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation)

2°C to 8°C: Unopened for up to 4.5 months.

2°C to 8°C: Opened up to 6 hours.

Freezer at -25°C to -15°C: Up to 24 months to the expiry date.

2°C to 8°C 2°C to 8°C 2°C to 8°C

Study participants

43,548 enrolled, 43,448 received injections (randomly assigned 1:1 ratio) (1)

596,618 vaccine recipients matched 1:1 ratio to controls. (2)

23 848 enrolled, 11 636 included in interim primary efficacy analysis (randomly assigned 1:1 ratio) (3)

17178 participants included in the efficacy analysis after a further month of data collection from original Lancet article* (4)

30,420 enrolled (randomly assigned 1:1 ratio)

21,977 enrolled, 19,866 included in primary outcome analysis (randomly assigned 3:1 ratio)

44,325 enrolled, 43,783 received vaccine or placebo (randomly assigned 1:1 ratio)

15,187 enrolled, 15,139 underwent randomisation (randomly assigned 1:1 ratio)

14,039 participants met the criteria for the per-protocol efficacy population

46,270 enrolled, 40,411 received WIV04 or HB02 or placebo (randomly assigned 1:1:1 ratio)

38 206 participants included in primary outcome analysis

10,214 enrolled, 6646 randomised to the vaccine group and 3568 to the placebo group

Study population

49% female, 35% obese, 21% at least one coexisting condition. Majority White (83%). Median age 52 years; 42% older than 55y (1)

Participants from Clalit Health Services data, which insures 4.7 million patients (53% of the population). (2)

Majority aged 18–55 years (86.7% in UK; 89.9% in Brazil cohort). 60.5% female. Majority White (91.4% in UK; 66.6% in Brazil)

47.3% female, mean age 51.4 years; 24.8% were 65 years of age or older. Majority White (79.2%)

38.8% female, mean age 45.3 years; 10.8% were 60 years of age or older. Majority White (98.5%)

45.0% female, median age 52 years; 33.5% were 60 years of age or older. Majority White (58.7%).

Latin America 40.9%; South Africa 15.0%; US 44.1%

48.4% women, 94.5% White, 2.9% Asian, and 0.4% Black. 44.6% had at least one coexisting condition. Median age 56 years, and 27.9% were ≥65 years of age

98% <60 years; majority young and healthy male (84-85%), mean age 36 years.

24% origin from United Arab Emirates, 2%-14% from other countries.

Most participants recruited from Abu Dhabi (67%), Sharjah 13-14% and Bahrain 19-20%.

42.6% female; 45 years median age; 15.9% were obese; 11.8% had at least one coexisting condition.

Authorisation granted in Australia

Yes

Approved for use in individuals 12 years and older.

Yes

Provisional approval granted by TGA

Provisional TGA approval for use in 12-17 years age group.

No Yes

Provisional determination granted by TGA

No No

Number of jurisdictions authorisation granted

68 plus EU and WHO^

110 plus EU and WHO^

40 plus EU and WHO^

65 plus EU and WHO^

37^  72 plus WHO^43 plus WHO

Phase 3 trials reported in the grey literature  / press releases

Vaccines which have had initial results from phase 3 trials reported in the grey literature and press releases will be reported here. The information will be added to the living table once results are published in the peer reviewed literature. Recent phase 1 and 2 trial results have been included below, however this is not a complete list of early trial data.

Notes

Table includes COVID-19 vaccines published as a peer-reviewed phase 3 trial (preliminary or final results). Data is included on these vaccines from additional publications. Studies that capture outcomes in real world settings are tabulated under effectiveness.

* Preliminary data, not fully established, in some cases small numbers or short follow up, or based on previous data; interpret with caution.

^ Commentary, grey literature, pre peer review or news.

ꝉ Asymptomatic/unreported symptoms. Efficacy estimated by study by pooling all cases and applying to entire cohort of sub studies; interpret with caution.

ⱡ Onward transmission in a vaccinated individual.

ⱶThis figure was not reported in the paper but was included on the same basis of the Moderna results for severe COVID-19.

LD/SD = low dose/standard dose and SD/SD = standard dose

Pfizer has two phase 3 trials published (1) and (2), as does Oxford/Astra-Zeneca (3) and (4) and Sinovac (5) and (6).

Modelling studies estimating real world effectiveness are not included in the table.

Where multiple studies are available on an outcome, not all studies are hyperlinked. Those that are more recent, published in peer reviewed journals and are higher on the evidence hierarchy are generally linked.

Background

Living evidence tables include some links to low quality sources and an assessment of the original source has not been undertaken. Sources are monitored daily but due to rapidly emerging information, tables may not always reflect the most current evidence. The tables are not peer reviewed, and inclusion does not imply official recommendation nor endorsement of NSW Health.

Last updated on 20 Sep 2021

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